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Book Reviews – Introduction to Communications Technologies

Book Reviews - Introduction to Communications Technologies

Thanks to the advancement of faster processors within communication devices, there has been a rapid change in how information is modulated, multiplexed, managed, and moved. While formulas and functions are critical in creating the granular components and operations of individual technologies, understanding the applications and their purposes in the business environment only requires a basic scientific background. The third edition of Introduction to Communications Technologies: A Guide for Non-Engineers helps students in telecommunications business programs become familiar with and stay abreast of the ever-changing technology surrounding their industry.

Used in the core curriculum at Ball State University’s graduate professional program in Information and Communication Sciences, this textbook is designed for graduate and undergraduate students who do not necessarily have a high level of technical expertise, but need to have some understanding of the technical functions of information and communication technologies to prepare them for working in a corporate environment.

See What’s New in the Third Edition:
Significant updates to the following chapters: Modulation Schemes; Signaling Formats, Multiplexing, and Digital Transmission; Packet Switching and Local Area Networks; Mobile Wireless Technologies; Network Security and Management
Added coverage of OFDMA, Metro Ethernet, 5G pre-standard configuration, ‘apps’ on mobile devices, and VoIP core switching
New chapters on Big Data and the Cloud
Avoiding complicated equations and the need for calculus gymnastics, this textbook provides non-engineering students with a firm background and a broad understanding of the knowledge necessary to work within the fast-paced and ever-changing communications industry.

1 Systems and Models of Communications Technologies: Shannon–Weaver, von Neumann, and the Open System Interconnection Model
Computing Model…………………………………………..3
Open System Interconnection Model…………………………..5
Summary………………………………………………….8
Review Questions……………………………………………………….9
Multiple Choice………………………………………………….9
Matching Questions…………………………………….10
Short Essay Questions……………………………………….11
2 Basic Concepts of Electricity………………………………..13
Common Units of Technical Measurement……………………………13
Signals……………………………………..14
Current……………………………………17
Resistance……………………………………….19
Voltage……………………………………………………………..19
Capacitance……………………………………….20
Inductance……………………………………………………………………………………..21
Power…………………………………………………………………………………………….22
Electrical Circuits……………………………………………………………………………22
Filters…………………………………………………………………………………………….24
AC-to-DC Conversion……………………………………………………………………..24
Summary……………………………………………………………………………………….27
Review Questions……………………………………………………………………………28
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………….28
Matching Questions…………………………………………………………………….30
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………….32
3 Modulation Schemes…………………………………………………………………..33
Spectrum……………………………………………………………………………………….33
Amplitude Modulation…………………………………………………………………….36
Frequency Modulation……………………………………………………………………..39
Phase Modulation…………………………………………………………………………..40
Pulse-Amplitude Modulation……………………………………………………………41
Pulse-Code Modulation…………………………………………………………………..42
Amplitude Shift Keying…………………………………………………………………..44
Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation…………………………………….44
Phase-Shift Keying………………………………………………………………………….45
Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing…………………………………….46
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation……………………………………………………47
Multiple-Frequency Shift Keying……………………………………………………….48
Summary……………………………………………………………………………………….48
Review Questions……………………………………………………………………………49
True/False………………………………………………………………………………….49
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………….49
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………….50
4 Signaling Formats, Multiplexing, and Digital Transmissions…………..53
Digital Formats……………………………………………………………………………….53
Multiplexing…………………………………………………………………………………..57
Frequency-Division Multiplexing…………………………………………………..57
Time-Division Multiplexing………………………………………………………….58
Digital Circuits……………………………………………………………………………….58
Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum………………………………………………..59
Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum……………………………………………………..60
Summary……………………………………………………………………………………….61
Review Questions……………………………………………………………………………61
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………….61
Matching Questions…………………………………………………………………….63
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………….63
5 Legacy to Current-Day Telephone Networks………………………………….65
Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching………………………………………………66
Legacy of the Circuit-Switching Network………………………………………66
Signaling System 7…………………………………………………………………..68
Integrated Services Digital Network…………………………………………..69
Packet Switching…………………………………………………………………………71
Packet Headers……………………………………………………………………….72
Quality of Service……………………………………………………………………72
Connectionless vs. Connection Oriented…………………………………….73
Asynchronous Transfer Mode……………………………………………………….73
ATM Architecture…………………………………………………………………..73
Legacy Public Switched Telephone Network………………………………………..74
The Telephone…………………………………………………………………………….74
Network Access………………………………………………………………………….77
Trunks and Lines………………………………………………………………………..78
Loop Start……………………………………………………………………………..78
Ground Start………………………………………………………………………….79
Direct-Inward-Dial Trunks………………………………………………………79
E&M Trunks…………………………………………………………………………79
Centrex………………………………………………………………………………….80
Customer Premise Equipment……………………………………………………….80
Private Automatic Branch Exchanges…………………………………………80
Digital Key Systems and Hybrids………………………………………………82
Voice Processing………………………………………………………………………….83
Voice over Internet Protocol……………………………………………………………..84
VoIP Benefits……………………………………………………………………………..84
VoIP Challenges………………………………………………………………………….85
Latency………………………………………………………………………………….85
Protocols Used in VoIP Environments………………………………………………..86
Session Initiation Protocol…………………………………………………………….86
Components of SIP……………………………………………………………………..86
Uniform Resource Indicators…………………………………………………….86
User Agents……………………………………………………………………………86
SIP Servers……………………………………………………………………………..86
Proxy Servers………………………………………………………………………….87
Registrar Servers……………………………………………………………………..87
Redirect Servers………………………………………………………………………87
SIP Call Flow…………………………………………………………………………87
Real-Time Transfer Protocol…………………………………………………………89
Multiprotocol Label Switching………………………………………………………89
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………90
Review Questions…………………………………………………………………………..90
True/False…………………………………………………………………………………90
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………….91
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………….92
6 Basics of Multiprotocol Label Switching Networking……………………..93
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..94
What Is MPLS?………………………………………………………………………………95
Motivation behind MPLS…………………………………………………………………96
Some Attractive Features of MPLS…………………………………………………….97
Principal Components of an MPLS Network………………………………………98
Operation with Edge and Core Label-Switched Routers………………………..99
Labels and Label-Switched Routers………………………………………………100
Forwarding Packets with MPLS Labels…………………………………………101
Example of MPLS Label Swapping………………………………………………102
Label Switching…………………………………………………………………………….103
Labels………………………………………………………………………………………103
Labels and Label Edge Routers…………………………………………………….103
Labels and Shims………………………………………………………………………103
Signaling and Label Distribution Protocols……………………………………….106
Network Topology Discovery………………………………………………………106
Reservation Protocol………………………………………………………………….107
Label Distribution Protocol…………………………………………………………107
Forwarding Equivalence Classes and LDP Paths………………………………..109
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………110
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….110
True/False………………………………………………………………………………..110
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………..111
Matching Questions…………………………………………………………………..112
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………..112
7 Local Area Network Technology…………………………………………………113
Business and Human Factors…………………………………………………………..114
Costs of a LAN……………………………………………………………………………..115
Initial Costs……………………………………………………………………………..115
Ongoing Costs………………………………………………………………………….116
Personnel……………………………………………………………………………..116
Equipment Maintenance, Upgrades, and Repairs……………………….117
Moves, Additions, and Changes………………………………………………117
Outside Links……………………………………………………………………….117
Software Licensing………………………………………………………………..117
Technical Factors…………………………………………………………………………..118
Working Parts of a LAN…………………………………………………………….118
End-User Devices………………………………………………………………….118
Physical Media………………………………………………………………………119
Networking Equipment………………………………………………………….119
Network Operating Systems……………………………………………………123
Common LAN Types………………………………………………………………..123
Ethernet (802.3)……………………………………………………………………123
Regulatory and Legal Factors…………………………………………………………..125
Use and Function of Standards……………………………………………………125
Process of Standardization………………………………………………………….125
Standard-Setting Bodies……………………………………………………………..126
Legal Aspects……………………………………………………………………………126
Other Networks…………………………………………………………………………….127
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….128
True/False………………………………………………………………………………..128
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………..129
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………..130
8 The Language of the Internet: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Business and Human Factors…………………………………………………………..131
Technical Factors…………………………………………………………………………..133
Message Casting………………………………………………………………………..133
Message Addressing……………………………………………………………………135
Network Routing………………………………………………………………………137
Centralized Routing………………………………………………………………138
Decentralized Routing……………………………………………………………139
Language of the Network: Routed Protocols………………………………….140
TCP/IP………………………………………………………………………………..140
IPX/SPX………………………………………………………………………………142
SNA…………………………………………………………………………………….142
SNA Access Programs…………………………………………………………….144
IPv6………………………………………………………………………………………..145
Regulatory and Legal Factors…………………………………………………………..146
Summary……………………………………………………………………………………..147
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….148
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………..148
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………..149
9 Wireless Local Area Networks……………………………………………………151
Business and Human Factors…………………………………………………………..151
Technical Factors…………………………………………………………………………..152
Basics of Radio Frequency…………………………………………………………..152
Wireless Protocols……………………………………………………………………..154
802.11n Protocol……………………………………………………………………154
802.11ac Protocol………………………………………………………………….155
802.11ad Protocol………………………………………………………………….157
What Is a WLAN?…………………………………………………………………….157
Aspects to Consider……………………………………………………………………159
Access Technology…………………………………………………………………159
Frequency Range…………………………………………………………………..160
Antennas……………………………………………………………………………..161
Range and Bandwidth……………………………………………………………163
Interference…………………………………………………………………………..164
Security……………………………………………………………………………….164
Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks………………………………………….165
Regulatory and Legal Factors………………………………………………………165
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….166
True/False………………………………………………………………………………..166
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………..167
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………..169
10 Mobile Wireless Technologies…………………………………………………….171
Advanced Mobile Phone Service………………………………………………………171
Multiple-Access Technologies………………………………………………………….173
Mobile Switching………………………………………………………………………175
Fourth-Generation Wireless (4G)…………………………………………………177
Future of 4G…………………………………………………………………………177
Future of Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)
Fifth-Generation Wireless (5G)……………………………………………………178
Time-Division Synchronous Code-Division Multiple Access……………179
Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Environment (EDGE)…………………….179
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)…………………………………………..180
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access……………………………………………180
Antennas………………………………………………………………………………….181
Smart Antennas…………………………………………………………………………183
Microwave Signals……………………………………………………………………..184
Engineering Issues for Microwave Signaling…………………………………..187
Summary……………………………………………………………………………………..189
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….190
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………..190
Matching Questions…………………………………………………………………..191
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………..195
11 Virtualization…………………………………………………………………………..197
Compute Virtualization………………………………………………………………….197
Hypervisor……………………………………………………………………………….198
Kernel Module………………………………………………………………………….198
Virtual Machine Monitor……………………………………………………………199
Virtualized Storage………………………………………………………………………..199
Virtual Machine–Based Storage Options……………………………………..200
Block-Level Storage………………………………………………………………200
File-Level Storage…………………………………………………………………200
Virtual Provisioning and Automated Storage Tiering………………………201
Thin Pools and Thin Logical Units (LUNs)……………………………….201
Virtualizing the Workstation…………………………………………………………..202
Benefits of Desktop Virtualization……………………………………………….202
Desktop Virtualization Techniques………………………………………………203
Remote Desktop Service………………………………………………………..204
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure……………………………………………….204
VDI Benefits………………………………………………………………………..204
VDI Limitations and Considerations………………………………………..205
Virtualizing the Application………………………………………………………..205
Application Encapsulation………………………………………………………205
Application Streaming…………………………………………………………..206
Summary…………………………………………………………………………………….206
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….207
True/False………………………………………………………………………………..207
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………..207
Short Essay Questions……………………………………………………………….208
12 Analyzing Big Data…………………………………………………………………..209
Introduction to Big Data………………………………………………………………..209
The Structure of Big Data……………………………………………………………….210
The Four Types of Data Structures……………………………………………….210
Analyzing Big Data………………………………………………………………………..211
Analyzing the Four Data Types……………………………………………………….212
Analyzing Structured Data………………………………………………………….212
Analyzing Unstructured and Semistructured Data…………………………214
The Corpus or Body of Work………………………………………………………216
Reviewing Results……………………………………………………………………..217
Summary……………………………………………………………………………………..217
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….218
True/False………………………………………………………………………………..218
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………..218
13 The Cloud and Cloud Computing……………………………………………….221
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………221
The History of Cloud Computing…………………………………………………….221
What Is the Cloud?……………………………………………………………………….222
Virtualization……………………………………………………………………………….223
Delivery Models for Cloud Computing…………………………………………….224
Deployment Models for Cloud Computing……………………………………….225
Public Cloud Deployment………………………………………………………….226
Private Cloud Deployment…………………………………………………………226
Hybrid Cloud Deployment………………………………………………………..226
Community Cloud Deployment………………………………………………….227
Risks of the Cloud…………………………………………………………………………227
Future Predictions………………………………………………………………………..228
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….230
True/False………………………………………………………………………………..230
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………..230
Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………..231
14 Video Basics……………………………………………………………………………..233
The Business and Human Factors…………………………………………………….233
High-Quality VC…………………………………………………………………………234
Medium-Quality VC……………………………………………………………………..235
Low-Quality VC……………………………………………………………………………236
The Technical Factors…………………………………………………………………….236
Image Scanning…………………………………………………………………………….237
Color…………………………………………………………………………………………..240
Transmission of Video……………………………………………………………………241
High-Definition Television……………………………………………………………..242
Summary…………………………………………………………………………………….244
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….245
True/False………………………………………………………………………………..245
Multiple Choice……………………………………………………………………….246
Short Essay Questions………………………………………………………………..247
15 Digital Media…………………………………………………………………………..249
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………249
Digital Media……………………………………………………………………………….250
Convergence……………………………………………………………………………..250
Digital Photography……………………………………………………………………….252
Advantages of the Digital Form over Analog Form…………………………252
Convenience…………………………………………………………………………252
Personalization………………………………………………………………………252
Technical Differences between Digital and Analog Forms……………….252
Camera Sensor………………………………………………………………………254
Storage Media……………………………………………………………………….255
Compression…………………………………………………………………………256
Digital Darkroom Techniques…………………………………………………257
Printing……………………………………………………………………………………257
Advanced Darkroom Technique………………………………………………….258
New Opportunities……………………………………………………………………259
Digital Video……………………………………………………………………………….260
Digital Video: Genesis and Advantages over Analog Video……………..260
Technical Differences between the Digital and Analog Forms………….261
New Opportunities……………………………………………………………………263
Digital Audio………………………………………………………………………………..263
Advantages over Analog Version…………………………………………………..263
Technical Differences between Digital and Analog Forms………………264
New Opportunities……………………………………………………………………265
3-D Digital Gaming………………………………………………………………………267
Advantages over the Analog Version……………………………………………..267
Technical Differences between the Digital and Analog Forms………….269
New Opportunities……………………………………………………………………272
Summary……………………………………………………………………………………..273
Review Questions………………………………………………………………………….274
True/False………………………………………………………………………………..274
Multiple Choice………………………………………………………………………..275
Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………..276
16 Network Security and Management…………………………………………….277
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………277
Network Security Threats……………………………………………………………….278
Who Are the Bad Guys?…………………………………………………………………278
Hackers……………………………………………………………………………………278
Types of Network and Computer Attacks…………………………………………280
Social Engineering Attacks…………………………………………………………280
DOS Attacks……………………………………………………………………………280
Malware Attacks……………………………………………………………………….281
Virus……………………………………………………………………………………281
Worm………………………………………………………………………………….281
Trojan Horse………………………………………………………………………..281
Sniffing……………………………………………………………………………………282
Data Theft……………………………………………………………………………282
Data Alternation……………………………………………………………………282
Spoofing………………………………………………………………………………282
The Payback of Security………………………………………………………………….282
Customer Trust…………………………………………………………………………282
Mobility…………………………………………………………………………………..283
Increased Productivity………………………………………………………………..283
Reduced Cost……………………………………………………………………………283
Basics of Security…………………………………………………………………………..283
Authentication………………………………………………………………………………283
What You Know………………………………………………………………………284
What You Have………………………………………………………………………..284
Who You Are…………………………………………………………………………..284
Accounting…………………………………………………………………………………..285
Encryption……………………………………………………………………………………285
Symmetric Key…………………………………………………………………………286
Asymmetric Key……………………………………………………………………….286
Access Control and Site Security………………………………………………………289
Security Policy………………………………………………………………………………290
Network Security Tools and Techniques……………………………………………290
Network Security…………………………………………………………………………..290
Depth in Design……………………………………………………………………….290
Firewalls…………………………………………………………………………………..292
Intrusion Detection Systems and Intrusion Prevention Systems………..292
Honey Pot………………………………………………………………………………..294
Host Security………………………………………………………………………………..294
OS Security………………………………………………………………………………294
Software Security………………………………………………………………………294
Antivirus Programs……………………………………………………………………295
Spam/Pop-Up and Cookie Blockers……………………………………………..296
Network Administration and Management……………………………………….296
Key Aspects of Network Administration and Management………………….296
Network Management Tools…………………………………………………………..297
Client/Server Architecture…………………………………………………………..297
Client…………………………………………………………………………………..297
Server…………………………………………………………………………………..298
Network OSs………………………………………………………………………..298
Simple Network Management Protocol…………………………………………299
Management Station……………………………………………………………..300
Management Agents……………………………………………………………..300
Management Information Base……………………………………………….301
Network Management Protocol……………………………………………….301
Case Study: Network Security and BYOD…………………………………………302
Summary……………………………………………………………………………………..303
Review Questions…………………………………………………………………………304
True/False……………………………………………………………………………….304
Multiple Choice……………………………………………………………………….304
Short Essay Questions……………………………………………………………….306

Book Reviews – Introduction to Communications Technologies


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