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Oracle Database 11g Underground Advice for Database Administrators

Oracle Database 11g Underground Advice for Database Administrators

MOS has a tool that provides an Automatic Document Repository (my words) called Oracle Configuration Manager (OCM). This tool has been mentioned several times in this chapter, but its real purpose is to manage all of your configurations (different systems, servers, databases, application servers) when dealing with Oracle support.
It is automatic in the sense that if you are out of the office, temporarily or permanently, the system configurations are available for viewing by anyone with the same Oracle Customer Support Identifier (CSI) number. The information is also available to Oracle support personnel. The repository is located on My Oracle Support. The systems are for you to choose, whether you want to only include production and/or non-production systems.

Chapter 1: When to Step Away from the Keyboard
Protecting and defending
Choosing your tools
Graphic-based, command-line Oracle tools and usage
Staying away from dinosaurs
Insisting on help
What does a DBA do all day?
Prioritizing tasks—daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, or yearly
SLAs: Why isn’t the database down anymore?
Avoiding major blunders
Chapter 2: Maintaining Oracle Standards
Adapting to constant change
Database concepts
Multiple ORACLE_HOME(s)
Keeping the environment clean
Oracle’s Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA)
11g differences in the OFA standard
XWINDOWS and GUI displays
Automating day-to-day tasks
DBMS_SCHEDULER
OS cron utility executing a scheduled task on a Unix server
OEM Console plus the Intelligent Agent
11g Diagnosability Framework
Advisors and checkers
Missing temp file resolution
Environmental variables and scripting
Guidelines for scripting
Separating the configuration file
Separating the variable part of the script into its own configuration file
Don’t hardcode values; reference a configuration file and password file at runtime
Putting variables at the top of the script with curly braces
Moving functions to a centralized file to be reused
Validating the use of the script
Using SQL to generate code
Helpful Unix commands
Reducing operating system differences with common tools
Configuration management, release management, and change control
Configuration management
Using OCM in disconnected mode with masking
Mass deployment utility
Release management
DBA issues with patching
Applying a patch without integrating MOS with OCM
Using the new patch plan functionality with OCM installed and uploaded to MOS
Change control
Where, when, and who to call for help
My Oracle Support
Documentation library
Chapter 3: Tracking the Bits and Bytes
Dump block
Demonstration of data travel path
Location of trace files
Running dump block SQL statements
Identifying files and blocks
Tracking the SCN through trace files
Oracle’s RDBMS Log Miner utility
Turn on archivelog mode
Add supplemental logging
Identification key logging
Table-level supplemental logging
Flash(back) Recovery Area (FRA)
Automatic Undo Management (AUM)
Identifying data in undo segments by flashing back to timestamp
When to use Log Miner
Identifying the data needed to restore
SCN, timestamp, or log sequence number
Pseudo column ORA_ROWSCN
Flashback Transaction Query and Backout
Enabling flashback logs
Flashback Table
Flashback Transaction Query with pseudo columns
Flashback Transaction Backout
Using strings to remove binary components
Chapter 4: Achieving Maximum Uptime
Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA)
Downtime—planned or unplanned
MAA with commodity hardware: Case study
Optimizing Oracle Database High Availability
To archive or not to archive, you pick the mode
Multiple archive destinations
Moving the archive destination in an emergency
Using a different disk device or disk mount
Monitoring all hard drive space and Archivelog space
Database compatibility parameter with spfile, pfile management
Dealing with storage—RAID, SAME, ASM, and OMF
RAID—Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
SAME—Stripe and Mirror Everything
ASM—Automatic Storage Management
Mirrored files—control files and online redo logs
Autoextending data files
Auditing, log files, and max dump file size
What is currently being audited?
Auditing Session Activity
Other logs to monitor
Data dictionary healthcheck
SQL*Net hardening, tuning, and troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
What can go wrong?
Grid Control High Availability and Disaster Recovery
Recommended installation for GC 10.2.0.5+
Why should I install a separate database?
Cookbook for silent install and configuring later
Migrating GC repositories
Transportable tablespace migrations
Keeping the repository highly available
Repository backups, restores, or imports
MAA—repository on a physical standby database
OMS and agents’ high availability
Cloning Management agents
GC at a very large site
Chapter 5: Data Guard and Flashback
Physical, snapshot, and logical standbys
Physical standby database
Snapshot standby database
Logical standby database
Commodity hardware and mixed environments
What is Data Guard broker?
What controls the Data Guard broker?
Which tool is best?
Start with the default configuration—maximum performance
Utilizing multiple standby sites
Protection modes and real-time apply
Maximum performance (default)
Maximum performance recommendations
Maximum availability
Maximum availability recommendations
Maximum protection and recommendations
Database states
Manual failover with physical standby
Manual failover with DGMGRL
Flashback and guaranteed restore points
Possible testing/recovery scenarios for Flashback and Data Guard
Lost-write detection using a physical standby database
Corruption, patch reversal, upgrades, or testing scenarios
Reinstate failed primary scenario
Troubleshooting the logical standby
Options for resolving errors that stop the SQL Apply process
How to skip a single transaction
Active Data Guard and RMAN
Other Data Guard notes and features
Chapter 6: Extended RMAN
Recovery goals determine backup configuration
Backup types and the default configuration
Backup incremental levels
Full backup
Logical backup
Oracle’s suggested backup: What is missing?
Controlfiles—an important part of backup and recovery
How often should backups occur?
Default configuration details
Oracle’s recommended backup strategy
Issues with incremental merge backups
Restore and recovery comparison
Recommendations for Incremental Merge backup
Calculating the FRA disk space needed
Catalog versus controlfile RMAN recordkeeping and retention policies
RMAN stored script and substitution variables
Retention policies: Recovery window or redundancy?
Not needed (OBSOLETE) versus not found (EXPIRED)
What if I want to keep certain backups?
Corruption detection
Physical corruption
Logical corruption
Commands and utilities that detect corruption
Which utility should be used?
What should I do if corruption is detected?
Data Recovery Adviser
What does RMAN backup, restore, and recover?
Possible interruptions to the recovery process
What doesn’t RMAN backup, restore, and recover?
Online redo: Key to consistency
User-managed backups
What do I do before starting a restore and recovery?
Find the most recent controlfile backup
Simplified recovery through resetlogs
RMAN cloning and standbys—physical, snapshot, or logical
Clones, DBIDs, and incarnations
Creating a cloned database
Post-cloning tasks
Creating a standby database
Physical standby
Scheduled maintenance/cataloging of archivelogs
Rolling forward a standby using incremental
Rolling incremental for monthly updates to data warehouses
The DBMS_BACKUP_RESTORE package
Chapter 7: Migrating to 11g: A Step-Ordered Approach
Oracle net services
Client compatibility (SQL*Net, JDBC, ODBC)
RMAN binary, virtual/catalog, and database
Grid Control—database repository and agents
ASM, CFS, and RDBMS within an Oracle Grid infrastructure
Recommended order of migration
Installation of major versions, maintenance releases, and patches
Release installation
PatchSet installation—cloned ORACLE_HOME
Database upgrade methods
How long does the database upgrade take?
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)
RMAN
Using RMAN as part of a manual upgrade process
Downgrading with RMAN
Transportable Tablespaces (TTS)
Preparatory steps for TTS migrations
Using TTS for upgrades
TTS cookbook
Recreating an unrecoverable database with TTS
Using TTS to add skipped read-only tablespaces during duplication
Using TTS to merge two ASM databases into one
Sharing read-only tablespaces between different databases with TTS
Cross-platform migrations with a transportable database
Physical and/or snapshot standbys
Failing back to original version
Transient logical standby: Rolling upgrades with minimal downtime
Export/import or data pump migration
Character set selection—UTF8
Post-11g upgrade tasks
Chapter 8: 11g Tuning Tools
Hardware load testing and forecasting
Orion—Oracle I/O numbers calibration tool
Calibrate I/O
jMeter
Monitoring hidden or underlying problems
Proactive monitoring
Automatic Diagnostic Database Monitor (ADDM)
Automatic Workload Repository
Active Session History (ASH)
SQL Advisors
STATSPACK
Reactive diagnostic and tracing tools
Bind peeking and Adaptive Cursor Sharing
Gathering statistics
Comparing statistics
Restoring statistics history
Knowing what needs to be tuned
Tuning a single query
SQL Plan Management (SPM)
SQL Management Base
Tracing and diagnostic events
What is an event ?
When should I set an event?
What are the different event levels?
Specific Trace events for performance problems
Interpreting the resulting Event Trace file
Upgrading the Optimizer
Capturing and backing up execution plans and statistics
SQL Tuning Sets
Stored Outlines
Capturing and backing up Optimizer Statistics
Upgrade the database to 11g
Capturing new execution plans and new statistics
Evolving or verifying new plans that execute better than the 10g versions

Oracle Database 11g Underground Advice for Database Administrators


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