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PostgreSQL 9 High Availability Cookbook

PostgreSQL 9 High Availability Cookbook

Chapter 1: Hardware Planning
Planning for redundancy
Having enough IOPS
Sizing storage
Investing in a RAID
Picking a processor
Making the most of memory
Exploring nimble networking
Managing motherboards
Selecting a chassis
Saddling up to a SAN
Tallying up
Protecting your eggs
Chapter 2: Handling and Avoiding Downtime
Determining acceptable losses
Configuration – getting it right the first time
Configuration – managing scary settings
Identifying important tables
Defusing cache poisoning
Exploring the magic of virtual IPs
Terminating rogue connections
Reducing contention with concurrent indexes
Managing system migrations
Managing software upgrades
Mitigating the impact of hardware failure
Applying bonus kernel tweaks
Chapter 3: Pooling Resources
Determining connection costs and limits
Installing PgBouncer
Configuring PgBouncer safely
Connecting to PgBouncer
Listing PgBouncer server connections
Listing PgBouncer client connections
Evaluating PgBouncer pool health
Installing pgpool
Configuring pgpool for master/slave mode
Testing a write query on pgpool
Swapping active nodes with pgpool
Combining the power of PgBouncer and pgpool
Chapter 4: Troubleshooting
Performing triage
Installing common statistics packages
Evaluating the current disk performance with iostat
Tracking I/O-heavy processes with iotop
Viewing past performance with sar
Correlating performance with dstat
Interpreting /proc/meminfo
Examining /proc/net/bonding/bond0
Checking the pg_stat_activity view
Checking the pg_stat_statements view
Debugging with strace
Logging checkpoints properly
Chapter 5: Monitoring
Figuring out what to monitor
Installing and configuring Nagios
Configuring Nagios to monitor a database host
Enhancing Nagios with check_mk
Getting to know check_postgres
Installing and configuring collectd
Adding a custom PostgreSQL monitor to collectd
Installing and configuring Graphite
Adding collectd data to Graphite
Building a graph in Graphite
Customizing a Graphite graph
Creating a Graphite dashboard
Chapter 6: Replication
Deciding what to copy
Securing the WAL stream
Setting up a hot standby
Upgrading to asynchronous replication
Bulletproofing with synchronous replication
Faking replication with pg_receivexlog
Setting up Slony
Copying a few tables with Slony
Setting up Bucardo
Copying a few tables with Bucardo
Setting up Londiste
Copying a few tables with Londiste
Chapter 7: Replication Management Tools
Deciding when to use third-party tools
Installing and configuring Barman
Backing up a database with Barman
Restoring a database with Barman
Installing and configuring OmniPITR
Managing WAL files with OmniPITR
Installing and configuring repmgr
Cloning a database with repmgr
Swapping active nodes with repmgr
Installing and configuring walctl
Cloning a database with walctl
Managing WAL files with walctl
Chapter 8: Advanced Stack
Preparing systems for the stack
Getting started with the Linux Volume Manager
Adding block-level replication
Incorporating the second LVM layer
Verifying a DRBD filesystem
Correcting a DRBD split brain
Formatting an XFS filesystem
Tweaking XFS performance
Maintaining an XFS filesystem
Using LVM snapshots
Switching live stack systems
Detaching a problematic node
Chapter 9: Cluster Control
Installing the components
Configuring Corosync
Preparing startup services
Starting with base options
Adding DRBD to cluster management
Adding LVM to cluster management
Adding XFS to cluster management
Adding PostgreSQL to cluster management
Adding a virtual IP to hide the cluster
Adding an e-mail alert
Grouping associated resources
Combining and ordering related actions
Performing a managed resource migration
Using an outage to test migration
Chapter 10: Data Distribution
Identifying horizontal candidates
Setting up a foreign PostgreSQL server
Mapping a remote user
Creating a foreign table
Using a foreign table in a query
Optimizing foreign table access
Transforming foreign tables into local tables
Creating a scalable nextval replacement
Building a sharding API
Talking to the right shard
Moving a shard to another server
Over 100 recipes to design and implement a highly available server with the advanced features of PostgreSQL
About This Book

Create a PostgreSQL cluster that stays online even when disaster strikes
Avoid costly downtime and data loss that can ruin your business
Perform data replication and monitor your data with hands-on industry-driven recipes and detailed step-by-step explanations

Who This Book Is For

If you are a PostgreSQL DBA working on Linux systems who want a database that never gives up, this book is for you. If you’ve ever experienced a database outage, restored from a backup, spent hours trying to repair a malfunctioning cluster, or simply want to guarantee system stability, this book is definitely for you.
What You Will Learn

Protect your data with PostgreSQL replication and management tools such as Slony, Bucardo, and Londiste
Choose the correct hardware for redundancy and scale
Prepare for catastrophes and prevent them before they happen
Reduce database resource contention with connection pooling
Automate monitoring and alerts to visualize cluster activity using Nagios and collectd
Construct a robust software stack that can detect and fix outages
Design a scalable schema architecture to handle billions of queries

In Detail

PostgreSQL, often known as simply “Postgres”, is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) with an emphasis on extensibility and standards-compliance.

From hardware selection to software stacks and horizontal scalability, this book will help you build a versatile PostgreSQL cluster that will survive crashes, resist data corruption, and grow smoothly with customer demand. We start with selecting the necessary hardware to handle multiple failure scenarios with redundancy. Then, we discuss how to automate and visualize these checks with Nagios, check_mk, and Graphite. We’ll finally round off by tackling the complex problem of data scalability.

PostgreSQL 9 High Availability Cookbook

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